Doing “Measurement”

I like to introduce measurement by doing it. My class on measurement starts with a wide collection of fruit lined up on the chalkboard ledge. I ask students to select three items from the collection and compare them on three dimensions. (I often provide a matrix of appropriate size on a handout or project one on the screen to give students a framework for their work.) We usually briefly discuss what some of the dimensions are that they could compare on: color, taste, size, weight, water content or density, sweetness, etc. After giving students about 5 minutes to complete their measurement matrix, we compare some of the measurements they made and discuss what measurement is: the systematic comparison, evaluation and assignment of values to objects or phenomena. They have just engaged in ‘measuring’ the fruit, even though no tape measures or scales were involved.

We then usually move on to a discussion of precision and accuracy in measurement, usually by discussing the ways in which they measured weight and color. Replicability looms large in this part of the discussion, with a focus on ways to reduce the subjectivity of measurement so that other student or researchers would obtain the same values that they did. How would we obtain reliable measurements of color? Color comparison charts (an external reference) are one option, but how would that handle the bicolored apple? Are there uses of the variable ‘color’ where the coarse measurement of red, yellow, green, etc., is sufficient? In some terms, I’ve numbered the items; we then discuss how the simple act of naming (classifying) the object as an apple or mango or whatever constitutes a form of measurement.

Just to complicate the comparison and discussion, I usually include at least one bicolored apple (red and green), one can of juice (often pineapple), some type of dried fruit, a tomato, a bell pepper, and an eggplant. (The latter three are technically fruit since they have seeds on the inside, even though most Americans think of them as vegetables.) A can of fruit cocktail is also a good ‘wrench’ to throw into the mix. Whether the dried fruit or the juice “count” as fruit is always a good discussion. If I can get unusual fruit like starfruit, kiwi, persimmon, or plantain, I like to include those alongside the usual suspects of apples, oranges, bananas, grapes, plums and the like. I typically spend no more than about $15-20 on fruit for the activity, and frequently far less in the summer.

When we’re done with the class, I usually invite them to take whatever fruit they want from the collection for snacking. I take home the rest and use it myself, or leave it in the department lounge for others.

“The internet’s broken…”

Pfft

Reading this piece of investigative journalism over the weekend, I was struck by the sub-text that if something’s not on the internet, then it doesn’t exist.

The author was investigating the use of micro-targetting of social media in the EU referendum and funding links to the US, and much of it turned on the absence of an online footprint of the various companies and entities.

This struck me as a marginal issue for two reasons: firstly, I’m a digital migrant, so I remember a time of card-filing and dusty archives; secondly, I work in a field where much activity remains resolutely off-line.

However, from the perspective of one of our students, things might look a lot different: we know that many of them seem to struggle to get beyond the first page of whatever Google search they have entered, so how do they cope with this kind of thing?

Three basic elements suggest themselves here. Continue reading

Ethnography of Consumption – A Twist

Buying is believing

The spring semester is ending here, and as usual everyone is dragging themselves across the finish line. There is not much left for students to do in my globalization course, but — given the structure of the U.S. higher education system — we still have to meet in the classroom. So, in search of something to fill time, I created an activity based on the last paragraph in my response to Leanne’s scavenger hunt exercise.

I collected some random products from home, all branded: running shoes (Saucony), cell phone charger cord (Samsung), bag of lentils (Jack Rabbit), hand towel (Cannon), and a tote bag to transport everything (London Review of Books). In class I laid all these items on a table and lied about getting them from a friend. I then told students to examine everything and write an answer to “What story is the owner of these things trying to tell others about the kind of person he or she is?” Students had already completed ethnographies of consumption, so they had some understanding of the connection between identity construction and consumption choices.

After five minutes, I grouped students into teams to create presentations, which they delivered during the second half of class. I got to listen to them unknowingly analyze my self-image as practical, value-oriented, and health conscious. (I would have been just as happy with other adjectives.) Once the last team had presented, I revealed that the items were my own by plugging my cell phone into the wall socket with the charger cord.

As a last minute invention, this activity worked fairly well. Students got to practice collaborating, communicating to an audience, and applying concepts. And all I had to do was bring a tote bag to class.

Active Learning and the … Lit Review??!?

A research methods class is pretty much by definition a classlong experience in active learning. Whether the grade is based primarily on problem sets or a finished research project, students are expected to learn by doing and to demonstrate their learning through completed analyses.

One of the challenges in teaching such a course, however, is ensuring that students get sufficient practice attempts at all major skills to succeed. This is particularly true for courses that rely heavily on a final paper of a type that students have never done before. Most faculty require a draft literature review prior to the submission of the final paper, often after a class meeting with a reference librarian to learn to locate and cite appropriate academic literature.

What we don’t give them a chance to practice, however, is the write-up portion of the literature review, the actual composition stage. The result is literature review drafts that read like annotated bibliographies simply strung together; each paragraph is about a separate article, with little connection between them.

The problem with getting students to practice this skill is the part where they presumably have to read the literature to be able to summarize it. My solution: write draft literature reviews that were entirely fictitious yet contain enough information for students to practice looking for common themes and connections between the pieces. Chapter 3 of my book, Empirical Research and Writing: A Political Science Student’s Practical Guide, contains three drafts of a mock literature review on which came first, the chicken or the egg. (This keeps the focus on the form, not the content.) These guide students through the process of going from a beads-on-a-string, paragraph-per-item format to a more integrated and holistic approach to the literature.

The book’s website, available at http://study.sagepub.com/powner1e, then contains a second draft literature review for students to practice their skills. This is the chicken’s half of the story, arguments for why the chicken had to have preceded the egg. If you’ve reviewed or discussed the first part (the egg primacy half) in class, students should need about 20 minutes to write better drafts of the chicken portion; this works best with a partner or two.  When I’ve done this in class, the results are about a paragraph long. Pairs then exchange drafts and discuss what the other pair did differently.

If time permits, or as a short homework assignment, the website also contains several graduate-student-written ‘dreadful draft’ literature reviews on actual topics in American, comparative, and international politics.

Some extensions for the Parliament game

Interestingly, the European Banderwot is much larger than its American cousin

Chad wrote about his use of my parliament game just yesterday, so it’s a good moment to consider how else this basic model can be used. All my materials are here.

For me, the most interesting point is that Chad’s doing something really quite different from my original objective. Indeed, the game is a great one for me to reflect on, because it has undergone one of the more problematic formulation processes of any of my activities.

At heart, it’s a game about the cross-cutting tensions in accumulating power: Chad gives his students their card and another interest, while I have focused just on getting mine to balance ideological coherence with holding a balance of power in the assembly. In both cases, you can see how that can be built on, to illustrate further elements. Continue reading

Undergraduates Doing Replication: Strategies for Successful Replication Exercises (Part 3 of 3)

In my last two posts (here and here), I’ve talked through the rationale for undergraduates doing replication and shared a replication assignment of my own. In the final segment of this series, I want to talk a little bit about strategies for developing your own successful replication assignment.

First, start with a highly readable article. Alas, this means that most of what is in the APSR is out. Both Perspectives on Politics and PS: Political Science and Politics have appropriate empirical articles, though, that are typically shorter, more accessible, and less technically sophisticated. The better students can understand the article, the better their chances of success on the assignment. Even if you don’t usually give reading guides, I’d consider doing one (just reading comprehension questions for students to review while reading) for this assignment to help ensure everyone starts off on the right foot with a good understanding of the reading.

Second, talk it up in class. Emphasize that research gets published using only the skills the students currently have, and we’re going to show that to ourselves by replicating published research. This is something they should be proud to be able to do; it’s an achievement.

Third, consider allowing students to work with partners or in trios, even if they turn in separate written work. Working together will give them – especially the women – more confidence about their ability to do the tasks, and that will reduce both the stress on them and the number of anxious questions you’ll get.

Finally, give yourself plenty of time to write the assignment. Be detailed and specific. It will also take you some time to get and clean the data, and possibly write a sketchy codebook in the instructions, so that the assignment is plug-and-play ready when it goes out to students. You’ll want to drop most of the unused variables (especially if there are fixed effects dummies you aren’t using) and similar clutter like that.  There’s a reason I’m posting this blog entry now: writing one of these would be an excellent summer project, a good activity for when you’re stalled on your research or just need to change mental gears for a bit. This will take a few hours, but like all good problem sets, once you’ve written it you can reuse it repeatedly.

Follow up on Model Diplomacy

A while back I put out a plea for new simulations for my Introduction to International Politics class. I asked specifically about the Council on Foreign Relations’ Model Diplomacy simulations and got some useful feedback (on that and others). In case others are interested, I figured I’d post a follow up.

I decided to structure my course around two sets of simulations. First, I planned on a series of four different one-day Model Diplomacy simulations, at key times during the term. I replaced my group debate assignment with these. Since I centered the group debate assignment around current events as a way of applying course material to a contemporary question, the Model Diplomacy simulations were a reasonable replacement since they, too, focus on a current event. Continue reading